Links of interest

Links proposals

You are kindly asked to propose us the inclusion of further interesting or relevant links you may consider: mercator@ciemen.org

The Mercator Team acknowledges any collaboration aimed to improve our website.

“Europe unties tongues” / “Europa suelta las lenguas” / “Europa: Anregung für Sprachen” / “L'Europe délie les langues” / “L'Europa della pluralità lingüística”
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(article) THE MAGAZINE - n. 22 (2004)

“TREASURE OF THE ARAGONESE LANGUAGE”, LEXICOGRAPHY RESEARCH PROJECT
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The “Treasure of the Aragonese Language”, carried out by the Institute of High-Aragonese Studies (Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses) with the collaboration of the Council of the Aragonese Language (Consello d’a Fabla Aragonesa), started in 1997 and is conceived as a long-term project. Its objective is to create a continuously updated computer database of the Aragonese lexicon. This will allow the creation in the future of an Aragonese lexicography information office as well as dictionaries and other codification and normalisation instruments. The website gives account of numerous tools and publications which already exist.

A community of languages: 2001, European Year of Languages
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This website provides information on different linguistic issues in relation to the European Parliament. On the one hand there are technical aspects such as criteria for translation and the languages involved, types and functioning of interpreting services and terminological matters. On the other, it offers information on the aims and principles on which the European Year of Languages 2001 has based, as well as links to those EC, Council of Europe and Eurolang's websites specifically devoted to this year.

A Rebista
News in Aragonese
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The website of A Rebista provides -apart from general information in Aragonese (as well as in Spanish, Catalan of Aragon and English)-, the possibility to participate in discussion lists on the new Aragonese law of languages and on the European Year of Languages. You can also find a number of interesting links related to the languages of Aragon and the lesser used languages in general.

Academia de la Llingua Asturiana
Academy of the Asturian Language
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L'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana (A.Ll.A.) ye una institución del Principáu d'Asturies que se creó en 1980. El llabor de l'Academia organízase en delles xuntes de trabayu: Lexicografía,Normativización,Toponimia,Pedagoxía,Lliteratura, Etnografía y Cultura. Tamién lleva alantre otres xeres, ente les que tán: Organización de les Xornaes d'Estudiu, Organización de los Alcuentros "llingua minoritaria y educación", cursos de branu pruebes conocencia, convocatories concursos, edición llibros revistes.

Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
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Opinion on Hungary, adopted on 22 September 2000.

Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Comments
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Comments of the Government of Hungary on the Opinion of the Advisory Committee on the Report on the Implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in Hungary.

Alternative report to the Report submitted by Bulgaria pursuant to Article 25, paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
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(Report)

AMARAUNA
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World Languages Network AMARAUNA is a project which aims to promote the linguistic rights and the goal is to strengthen relations among people and institutions that have realized about the importance of the heritage and diversity of the languages of the world. It intends to exchange experience and information making use of the possibilities that Internet provides. Any person or organisation will be able to participate presenting their works or offering their knowledge and experience. A forum will be created approaching this project to people in charge of maintaining the linguistic heritage, researchers, working groups, etc. It will promote the establishment of an adequate linguistic policy for the recuperation of languages in danger.

Apprendre sans Frontières
Learn without Frontiers
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This program, which started in the year 1998 and gathers several institutions and municipalities from Germany (länder of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate) and Luxembourg, has adult training as its main objective and its developed within a geographical space with common historical and cultural boundaries. Language courses include courses of Luxembourgish.

ARBITALIA – THE HOUSE OF THE ALBANIANS OF ITALY
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It contains information on the Albanian language spoken in Italy, the legislation that affects it, the history of Albanian presence in Italy, their culture, their location (in a map), and other topics, such as art, traditions, news, etc.

Arelerland a Sprooch (Alas)
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This cultural association for the safeguard of the Luxembourgish language and culture in the Arlon region (Belgium) works actively for the knowledge of the current situation of the language in this part of Belgium, as well as for the explicit recognition of this community by the Belgian Government, specially regarding its inclusion in the ratification instrument to the Council of Europe’s Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Atlant linguistic dl ladin dolomitich y di dialec vejins
Linguistic Atlas of Dolomitic Ladinian and neighbouring dialects
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Atlant is a project of the Romanistik Department of the University of Salzburg. So far, the first part of the project has been published in paperback (4 volumes), CD and DVD format. Moreover, the Department carries out comparative studies on dialecometry and developes a software which facilitates the analysis and visualization of these studies.

BAYEFSKY.COM
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Bayefsky.com was designed for the purpose of enhancing the implementation of the human rights legal standards of the United Nations. Accessibility to UN human rights norms by individuals everywhere is fundamental to their successful realization. The information provided herein encompasses a range of data concerning the application of the UN human rights treaty system by its monitoring treaty bodies since their inauguration in the 1970's.

BBCi – Languages across Europe
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This BBC-Education website provides general and introductory information about European languages ranging from the geographical situation by means of maps, their linguistic classification, some key phrases in each of the languages included, an explanation on the definitions generally used (majority/minority languages), etc.

Behatokia
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The Observatory of Linguistic Rights, Behatokia, is a trust promoted by Kontseilua, the Council of Social Organizations in Favour of Basque. Behatokia protects the linguistic rights of the citizens of the regions covered by Euskara, the Basque language, and its activities aim to guarantee those rights both in the public and the private area.

Belonging, ethnic diversity and everyday experience: co-existing identities on the Italo-Slovene frontier
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Article by Warwick Armstrong (Geography Department, McGill University, Març / March 1998)

Bericht der Landesregierung: “Umsetzung der Europäischen Charta der Regional- oder Minderheitensprachen in Schleswig-Holstein (Sprachenchartabericht 2003)”
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BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ETHNIC RELATIONS IN CEE AFTER 1989
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A section of LGI’s website. Very complete bibliography, classified by key-terms. All titles include a link that leads to a complete bibliographic data file, including an abstract in English. Very useful for research.

BIBLIOTECA VIRTUAL GALEGA
GALICIAN VIRTUAL LIBRARY
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The Galician Virtual Library has been a dream conceived by us for a long time. This dream came true when we got the support of the University of A Coruña. We first developed a small window in order to show some examples of our literary production. It was with this aim that we started our work. But our aims grew thanks to the enthusiasm of writers. Then, we reconsidered the initial project and transformed it into a huge portal which could allow our literature to navigate through virtual seas.

Bilingualism: Part of Our Past or Part of Our Future?
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Article by Andrew Parkin and André Turcotte CRIC – CENTRE FOR RESEARCH AND INFORMATION ON CANADA

BLaIN – THE BALTIC LANGUAGE AND INTEGRATION NETWORK
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The Baltic Language and Integration Network aims to create opportunities for synergy and to facilitate inter-Baltic collaboration amongst academics, language activists and practitioners to: promote mutual support to address language and ethnicity-related issues across the Baltic generally, develop joint approaches in the promotion and management of cultural and linguistic diversity, critically evaluate goals and outcomes of existing language-related policies in the Baltic and, for comparative purposes, further afield, and develop strategies for future actions on language policy in support of inclusive citizenship and social integration. The network focuses on the following topics: language and education legislation in the Baltic countries, the effectiveness of (language) policy formulation, sociolinguistic/ethnolinguistic aspects, and theoretical aspects. This website includes the documents of the workshops organised by BLaIN as well as useful links and bibliography on Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

BORD DWAR I-LLSIEN MALTI
MALTA LANGUAGE BOARD
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BREIZH
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The BZH portal of Identité Bretonne, which is member of the Cultural Council of Brittany, focuses on a permanent assessment of the situation of the Breton culture and identity and its diverse components: language, history, territory, etc. You will find articles, information on the Diwan schools and the promotion of campaigns such as the petitions for the remodification of Article 2 of the French Constitution or the ratification by the French Republic of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

Bureau Européen pour les langues moins répandues
European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages
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Carrefour Culturel Arnaud-Bernard
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Carta de los Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea: Proyecto
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Project
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European Parliament, information on the events related to the development of such project.

Center for Legal Analysis - Kalligram Foundation
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The mission of the Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation (CLA) is to create an independent group of experts to analyze relevant legal questions regarding minorities in Slovakia.

Central Europe Review
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This is the address of an electronic newspaper on Central and Eastern European states' culture, society and politics.

Central Europe Review - Polish Minorities Issues
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Articles on Polish minorities published in previous issues of CER.

Centre de Langues Luxembourg
Language Centre Luxembourg
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The Centre des Langues Luxembourg, which depends on the Ministry of National Education, Professional Training and Sports, is the official body devoted to language teaching in the Grand-Duchy, including courses of Luxembourgish language. The centre has specialized in adult teaching and hosts more than 2000 students of a wide range of nationalities every year.

Centre for European Migration and Ethnic Studies
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CEMES is a 'non profit' organization founded in 1998. It is specialized in politically relevant research, information and publishing on international migration, ethnic relations and related topics in Western, Central and Eastern Europe.

Centre for Luxembourg Studies
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The Centre for Luxembourg Studies of the University of Sheffield (United Kingdom) is ever since 1995 one of the most important research spaces concerning the Luxembourgish language and culture. Besides the teaching of the language, research and documentation activities, conferences, etc. are also carried out.

Centre Interdisciplinaire de recherches sur la activités langagières (CIRAL)
Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Language Activities
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This webpage,which belongs to an organization attached to the University of Laval (Québec), contains very useful information on language planning and legislation, with the organization of contents by continents, alphabetical order, languages and kind of linguistic policy.

Centro de Documentación Sociolingüística de Galicia (CDSG)
Centre of Sociolinguistic Documentation of Galicia
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The CDSG, integrated into the Council of Galician Culture, has as one of its main objectives the collection, classification and diffusion of all kind of documents and publications dealing with Galician and other languages, mainly minority ones.

Centro Internacionale sul Plurilinguismo
International Centre on Plurilingualism
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The webpage of the International Centre on Plurilingualism, which depends on the Università degli Studi di Udine, is a proposal for accessing the world of the linguistic minorities protection in Italy. From it you may have access to different texts (Italian version) of either an international and European scope as well as state and regional ones. It is a good portal where you may also find general information on the languages of Italy and an interesting article on the languages or linguistic modalities that have been excluded from the new Italian framework law (482/1999).

Centro Internazionale sul Plurilinguismo, Università di Udine
International Centre on Plurilinguism. University of Udine
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CERCLE OCCITAN DE MONTPELHIÈR
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The Occitan Circle of Montpellier is a non-profit association aiming at discovering, re-discovering and spreading the knowledge on the Language of Oc. They organise Occitan language courses and publish a monthly magazine in Occitan (available online). This site also includes several links about the Occitan world.

Challenging Ethnic Democracy: Implementation of the Recommendations of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities to Latvia, 1993-2001
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Article by Jekaterina Dorodnova

CHARRANDO.COM
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This Aragonese-language portal contains a complete list of links to online resources related to the Aragonese language and culture: associations and organisations, publications, legislation, media, language teaching, etc.

Colla Unibersitaria por l'Aragonés
University Group for the Aragonese Language
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The Colla Unibersitaria por l'Aragonés (C.U.A.) is a cultural association of the University of Zaragoza which works for the defence and the promotion of the Aragonese language and the Aragonese culture in general. The Colla Unibersitaria por l'Aragonés is an independent group which scope of action is mainly the university one, and which was founded in November, 1996. Their actions aim at the diffusion of the Aragonese language, history, law, institutions, traditional sports and folklore, as well as the trilingual reality of Aragon and to request to the University of Zaragoza the recognition of the linguistic minorities in Aragon. The Colla Unibersitaria por l'Aragonés is a member of the Platform for the Defence of Minority Languages of Aragon. You will find a direct link to the White Paper on the Languages of Aragon: http://www.unizar.es/colla/abamproyeutoleideluengas.htm (in Aragonese)

Comparative analysis on the so-called status laws in Hungary and Slovakia
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Despite the fact that the Kalligram Foundation is located in Slovakia and focuses its interest on this state, there appears in their webpage a comparative study elaborated by a team of Slovak and Hungarian lawyers, on the implementation of the Hungarian Status Law and its contribution, along with a similar law passed by Slovakia in 1997, to the minorities protection at an international level as well as on the debate it has entailed.

Complete list of the Council of Europe's treaties
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From this Council of Europe's webpage you can consult the texts of all the treaties issued by the Council of Europe, the states which have signed or ratified them, the list of declarations on the part of the states, etc. One should point out among these treaties the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (n. 148), or the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (n. 157).

Comunn na Gàidhlig
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Comunn na Gàidhlig (CnaG) was established with Scottish Office support in 1984 as a co-ordinating Gaelic development agency which has representives from the diverse Gaelic-speaking areas. Comunn na Gàidhlig is involved in a number of different projects with the aim of either promoting the regeneration of Gaelic as a language or stimulating growth in the Gaelic economy. Links to pages with more information on these projects, and a brief synopsis of each can be found.

Conseil Permanent de la Langue Luxembourgeoise
Permanent Council of the Luxemburguese Language
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You may find in this website the latest news concerning the standardization process of the luxembourgish language, more specifically around the cortina project of applied computerized correction. If you access it you will find data about the project itself, its process, authors, etc.

Contact adresses for Frisian language and culture
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From this webpage you may have an access to several organisations, media and institutions in relation with the Frisian language and the diverse communities where it is spoken either in the Netherlands as in Germany.

Contested Norms in the Process of EU Enlargement: Non-Discrimination and Minority Rights
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Article by Antje Wiener and Guido Schwellnus

Convention Européenne
European Convention
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This is the European Convention’s official website which aim is to propose a framework and a structure for the European Union in accordance with the world’s evolution, the needs of European citizens and the future development of the Union. Created by the European Council of Laeken (December 2001), it gathers representatives from national governments and parliaments, the European Parliament and the European Commission. In this internet site one may consult the Conventions’ public deliberations as well as participate in the debates through a virtual forum.

CORGA: Corpus de referencia do galego actual
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CORGA is a collection of different typologies of texts, selected in accordance with specific criteria, all them representative of the linguistic use of the current Galician language and stored electronically. Currently, CORGA contains 17,5 million of graphic forms (tokens), and it is planned to reach the 25 million. The texts selected for CORGA were selected in accordance with three independent classification criteria: means, date and thematic area.

Council of Europe - European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
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This website is intended to inform you about this treaty which is designed to protect and promote the use of regional or minority languages in public and private life. It provides access to basic texts related to the Charter and its monitoring mechanism as well as information relating to Contracting Parties. Furthermore, it provides you with regular news on the Charter and the work of its committee of independent experts, recent signatures and ratifications, as well as regular and on-going activities relevant to the Charter.

Council of Europe - Human Rights - National Minorities
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This Council of Europe’s official site is part of the whole set of information available in the internet that the COE makes available on the European Framework for the Protection of National Minorities, in this case specifically offering the text of this international instrument in 33 different languages, apart from the two authentic official versions, i.e, French and English.

Council of Europe - Local and Regional Affairs (European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages)
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This is the website of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Strasbourg, 1992), which is intended to inform you about this treaty, designed to protect and promote the use of regional or minority languages in public and private life. This site provides access to basic texts related to the Charter and its monitoring mechanism as well as information relating to Contracting Parties. Furthermore, it provides you with regular news on the Charter and the work of its committee of independent experts, recent signatures and ratifications, as well as regular and on-going activities relevant to the Charter.

CREECA – CENTER FOR RUSSIA, EAST EUROPE, AND CENTRAL ASIA
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CREECA is a U. S. Department of Education National Resource Center. It was established in 1993 to unite the efforts of two longstanding University programmes–Russian and East European Studies (REES), and Central Asian Studies. CREECA consists of roughly 100 members including many nationally and internationally known experts in their fields. Its mission is threefold: to foster new knowledge and understanding of Russia, East Europe, and Central Asia, to train a new generation by providing the knowledge, tools, and experience necessary for understanding these societies and for playing productive roles in their reconstruction, and to serve as a community resource through outreach activities designed for Wisconsin's citizens, businesses and other parties interested in these regions of the world. CREECA’s website provides a wide variety of links, articles, etc. on Russia and many other countries of East Europe and Central Asia.

CULTURAL INSTITUTE OF BRITTANY
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Created in 1981 by the Regional Council of Brittany, the Institut Culturel de Bretagne works for the development and dissemination of the Breton culture, so that it becomes widely accepted. Its 17 sections intend to advance in the knowledge and the creation in their specific cultural field. They meet regularly in order to: organise workshops, round-tables and conferences, encourage the work of researchers, etc. The Institute also gives support to the cultural action and encourages any new developments.

De nationale mindretals rettigheder i det dansk-tyske grænseland
The National Minorities in the Danish-German Border Region
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Danish Institute of Border Region Studies Article by Jørgen Kühl

Departament de Justícia de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Department of Justice of the Generalitat of Catalonia
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This web includes linguistic formulae and criteria corresponding to juridical and administrative documents, so as a PDF-format document on linguistic criteria concerning the juridical and judicial fields.

Determinants of Linguistic Human Rights Movement
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Article by Atsushi Ishida, Miya Yonetani, Kenyi Kosaka

Dirección General de Política Lingüística del Gobierno de Navarra
General Board of Linguistic Policy of the Navarrese government
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This is the webpage of the General Board of Linguistic Policy of the Navarrese government. According to its mission statement, this body was set up in 1989 in order to work for the accomplishment, development and application of the regulation on linguistic normalisation, in this case, the Ley Foral del Vascuence (Regional Law on the Basque Language), which was approved by the Parliament of Navarre in 1986.

DIVERSCITÉ LANGUES
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DiversCité Langues is a free electronic magazine and forum from Montreal (Québec) concerned about «the dynamics of languages». This thematic field under construction focuses on the interrelationships between language phenomena and sociocultural phenomena. DiversCité Langues is specially concerned on diversity, pluralism, complementarity of language situations within the framework of globalisation of exchanges and of societies. This site contains articles written by international politics and language policy professionals as well as by university experts. And they are grouped either according to the discipline they belong to or by the subject they analyse.

ECMI-ROM
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This website, entitled “Toward Regional Guidelines for the Integration of Roms”, is the Romani project website of the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI), a project which is aimed at assessing the needs of the Romani population in the Republic of Macedonia. The needs assessment conducted by ECMI from September to November 2003 was divided into four core areas: education, health, civil rights, and employment. For each core area, attention was given not only to the situation of the Romani population in general, but also to the position of Romani women in particular. The needs assessment was designed with the intention that the evaluation report resulting from it could serve in turn as the foundation of a strategy aimed at increasing Roms’ level of integration into the society of Macedonia as a whole by equipping them with the resources needed for playing an effective role in a democratic society based on the rule of law as well as for participating successfully in a competitive labour market. This report is downloadable.

Eis Sprooch
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Eis Sprooch’s website, one of the most active organizations with regard to the promotion of Luxembourg’s national language (Lëtzebuergesch or Luxembourgish), provides complete information on those resources related to this language: teaching material, courses, disctionaries, orthography, literature, links to other sites, etc.

El model lingüístic escolar a Catalunya: balanç i reptes
The linguistic schooling model in Catalonia: balance and challenges
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Report by F. Xavier Vila I Moreno

El temps aparent i el temps real en estudis de variació i canvi lingüístic
Apparent and real time in studies of linguistic change and variation
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Article by Maria Teresa Turell

ELEARNINGEUROPA.INFO
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Elearningeuropa.info is a portal established by the European Commission to promote the use of multimedia technologies and Internet at the service of education and training. The site offers specific information, services and resources for four basic areas: schools, higher education, the world of employment and lifelong learning. The section on How to Use elearningeuropa.info provides practical information about the site's navigation possibilities.

ELRA
European Language Resources Association
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ELRA's missions are to promote language resources for the Human Language Technology (HLT) sector, and to evaluate language engineering technologies. The European Language Resources Association (ELRA) was established as a non-profit organisation in Luxembourg in February, 1995

ENAR - European Network Against Racism
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ENAR is a network of European NGOs working to combat racism in all the EU member states, created in the framework of the 1997 European Year Against Racism. It endorses the recognition by NGOs of the European dimension to the fight against racism, as well it promotes equality of treatment between EU citizens and third country nationals, and to link local/regional/national initiatives with European initiatives. The network is determined to act against the discrimination and exclusion of people of different racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds; eliminate racist elements in Europe's migration policies, and celebrate cultural, ethnic and racial diversity.

Endangered Languages Fund
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EPSL- Language Policy Research Unit (Arizona State University)
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LPRU, as part of the Education Policy Studies Laboratory, promotes research and policy analysis on the challenges and opportunities posed by national and global multilingualism. LPRU priorities include: a) interdisciplinary studies to promote equitable language policies in education and society; b) demographic studies with policy implications for language rights and preservation; c) historical and contemporary studies on language contact, conflict, and minority language accommodation and promotion; d) and media, legal and legislative analyses to inform public discourse and policy making in state, national, and international contexts.

ÉQUIPE DE RECHERCHE EN SYNTAXE ET SÉMANTIQUE
SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS RESEARCH UNIT
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The ERSS Research Unit is a combined research unit (UMR 5610) under the dual management of the CNRS (French National Research Agency) and the Ministry for Education and Research. It is based on two sites: Toulouse-Le Mirail University and Michel de Montaigne University in Bordeaux. Since it was founded in 1981, the ERSS unit’s objective has been the scientific description of languages in their different aspects: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, the lexicon, and the formalisation of the resulting descriptions. These model-theoretic formalisations have in turn given rise to collaborative work involving computer scientists (AI and language engineering specialists) as well as psycholinguists. The languages studied are varied: initially, standard French (the subject of the great majority of the research conducted within the unit), Latin, English, Spanish, Korean and Japanese, and subsequently also, over the past four years, Arabic, Amharic, Barasana and Tatuyo, Sardinian, Italian and Serbo-Croatian. Moreover, owing to the unit’s regional base , and through a long-standing tradition in language studies at Toulouse University, particular attention is paid to the languages of Southern France (regional varieties of French, Basque, Occitan, Catalan).

Estudio sociolingüístico sobre a situación da lingua galega no Concello de Vigo 2002
Sociolinguistic study on the situation of Galician language in the Council of Vigo 2002
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This is a complete sociolinguistic approach to the situation of the Galician language in the city of Vigo. The study was jointly undertaken in 2002 by the University of Vigo, the Vigo city Council and the Servicio de Normalización Lingüística of the city council.

ETHNOLOGUE
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Ethnologue.com is a place where you can conveniently find many resources to help you with your research of the world's languages. Ethnologue.com is owned by SIL International, a service organization that works with people who speak the world’s lesser-known languages.

ETHNOPOLITICAL MAP OF EUROPE (ECMI)
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Although much of the information of this website is not yet available, it promises to be of great use. It is an ongoing ECMI project and further countries will be added. The Ethnopolitical Map of Europe is intended to cover those regions in Europe, including the Balkans, the Baltic Sea area and the Caucasus, which are currently facing or have recently experienced ethnopolitical tension or conflict. The clickable map guides the users to official documents which reflect international involvement in the reduction of ethnopolitical tension and resolution of interethnic conflicts. Further, the map provides information on population statistics, current national legislation and relevant literature on the ethnopolitical situation in those countries.

EULISNET
European Union Legal Information Sources on Internet
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EULISNET is a site aimed at raising awareness of how to use documentary sources relating to Community law. It is also a directory of resources that guides you directly to the basic information in all media (web, CD-ROM, journals, and references works), as well as a methodological guide which explains in detail how to use these sources. A direct link to the Electronic Bulletin of European Documentation provides access to a bimonthly selection of the main Community instruments and documents published on line relating to European affairs. This project has been realised with the support of the European Commission as part of the Robert Schuman Project, and from the educational development fund of the Université Catholique de Louvain.

EurasiaNet
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It is a website on Central Asian states containing information, news and political and social analysis. It also provides other sources such as links, database, bibliography and a discussion forum.

EUROMINORITY
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The Organization for the European Minorities is an association of promotion of the European minorities which aims at the diffusion of information on European minorities and more largely native peoples, ethnic groups and areas with strong identity. Its website was created in 1999 and referred at its beginnings the flags of the European minorities, under the name of "Euroflag", evolving to a more complete database. The Organization for the European Minorities collects information on the European minorities thanks to the research carried out by a network of correspondents on the European territory. Because it is the very big work what the research task implies, the website is in permanent evolution and is updated regularly.

EUROMOSAIC
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EUROMOSAIC project for the knowledge and promotion of the situation of minority linguistic groups in Europe. The background for the Euromosaic Report derives from the responses to a tender issued by the Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training and Youth (now DG XXII) which solicited researchers willing to undertake the task of investigating the current situation of the various minority language groups within the EU insofar as in recent years only a few studies have been published giving an overview of the present state of language groups, or communities, other than those of the speakers of the dominant or official state languages in the member states of the European Union.

EUROPA DIVERSA
Constructing a Europe on diversity
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This initiative arises in the current context of debate on the construction of Europe and, with the support of the European Commission, seeks to develop a space for resources, communication and action on a key subject for the future of Europe: its diversity: the historical diversity of European societies and the diversity brought on by the intensification of international relations and the incorporation of new citizens from wherever they may come.

Europäische Akademi Bozen
European Academy of Bolzano
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Section of language and law of the European Academy of Bolzano.

Europe? Which Europe? Which future Europe? (Article)
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION – “PROMOTING AND SAFEGUARDING REGIONAL AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AND CULTURES”
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Mainly in English, German and French, but also in the rest of EU official languages
Mercator-Legislation wishes to recommend this website, as it may be of great use for those who intend to have a global glimpse on the European Commission’s language policy on the so-called “minority languages”. It contains: key documents which shape the Commission’s language policy, information on the EU programmes, etc.


European Commission - Enlargement
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To learn more about each of the countries which have applied to become members of the European Union, visit the individual country profiles which contain facts and figures; key information and documents; press releases, speeches and the latest news; as well as links to other information about the country in question.

European Roma Rights Center (ERRC)
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The European Roma Rights Center (ERRC) is an international public law organization which monitors the human rights situation of Roma and provides legal defence in cases of human rights abuse. The ERRC is governed by an international board of directors. The ERRC is a cooperating member of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights and has a consultative status before the Council of Europe.

Euskararen Gizarte Erakundeen Kontseilua
The Council of Social Groups in favour of the Basque language
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Kontseilua is the bringing together of all those organisations and groups whose prime aim is to encourage the normal, everyday use of the Basque language, Euskara. Essentially, it is to strengthen this normalisation the Basque language, a process that is envisaged in two main strands: promoting co-operation and cohesion between the various organisations working in favour of the Basque language and, secondly, getting social players, economic forces and political parties involved in s normalisation projects.

Federal Union of European Nationalities
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The Federal Union of European Nationalities is an independent union of organizations of national minorities in Europe, which was established in 1949 - at the time when the Council of Europe was set up in Versailles/France. Today, the FUEN gathers 68 member organizations from 30 different countries.

FIRST PEOPLE’S CULTURAL FOUNDATION
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The First Peoples' Cultural Foundation is a not-for-profit charitable public organization that generates support to raise awareness and funding for Aboriginal language revitalization. The Foundation works with its sister organization, the First Peoples’ Heritage, Language and Culture Council to ensure fair and equal access for all funds raised and to all programs available.

Foghlam tro mheadhan na Gàidhlig
Gaelic resources- Western Isles Government (Scotland)
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This official website provides the visitor with the possibility to have information on different services related to education through the medium of Scottish Gaelic: a general resource database, bibliography, multimedia resources, links, teaching materials, etc.

FOLKTINGET
Link >>
The Swedish Assembly of Finland, or Folktinget, protects the interests of the Swedish-speaking Finns and is a forum for political discussion and co-operation. The Assembly participates in the law drafting process and issues statements on topics involving the Swedish-speaking population. Folktinget is a cross-political body, of which all political parties with activities in Swedish are members. Folktinget publishes results from inquiries, distributes brochures on linguistic rights, and disseminates information on Swedish culture in Finland. In addition, the Swedish Assembly regularly compiles statistical reports on the Swedish-speaking Finns, and works actively to promote positive attitudes towards bilingualism through campaigns and other events.

FORAS NA GAEILGE
Link >>
Foras na Gaeilge is the body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the whole island of Ireland. It was founded on the second day of December 1999, following the Good Friday Agreement. In order to create Foras na Gaeilge, the staff of Bord na Gaeilge, An Gúm (Publishers), and An Coiste Téarmaíochta (Terminology Committee) and their activities were all transferred to it. Its designated responsibilities entail facilitating and encouraging the speaking and writing of Irish in the public and private arena in the Republic of Ireland, and in Northern Ireland where there is appropriate demand, in the context of part three of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages. Moreover, Foras na Gaeilge has a role in advising administrations, North and South, as well as public bodies and other groups in the private and voluntary sectors in all matters relating to the Irish language. It also undertakes supportive projects and grant-aiding bodies and groups throughout the island of Ireland. Foras na Gaeilge’s website contains useful information, organised in the following sections: “The Irish language”, “Learning”, “Using”, and “Directory” (of several organisations).

FORUM INSTITUTE
Link >>
The Forum Institute has included in its website (“Hungarians in Slovakia” section) a series of ethnic maps of Slovakia, showing the evolution of the population according to ethnicity from 1991 to 2001. The ethnic groups represented (in the first two maps, coloured in blue and red) are: Slovaks, Hungarians, the Roma, Ukrainians and Ruthenians (grouped together) and one last group containing others. The other two maps, coloured in grey, red and yellow, only show the location of the Hungarian minority, which is the biggest one in terms of numbers and of geographical presence. Although the maps are not sharp enough to appreciate the details, they allow to get a rough idea about where each group is located. In fact the same maps have also been published in the form of a poster by Lilium Aurum Könyvkiadó (www.liliumaurum.sk). The poster provides much more detailed information, including the proportion of each group in each district seat.

Fórum Kisebbségkutató Intézet
FORUM Institute's International Library on Ethnic Minoritty Issues
Link >>
FORUM INSTITUTE (SLOVAK REPUBLIC) has opened a new web-site section: "The international library on ethnic minority issues". It contains a Virtual library, aimed to enable its users to search the net quickly for specialised literature, and legal documents. From this site you can access to a database that contains the specialised literature, documents and laws on ethnic minority issues to be found on the Internet.

Frysk Letterkundich Museum en Dokumintaasjesintrum
Frisian Literary Museum and Documentation Centre
Link >>
The FLMD is an institution for and about Frisian readers and writers and for all those who are interested in Frisian literature. The FLMD is just the place to come for all those who have questions about Frisian writers, novels, poems, plays and the Frisian Movement. Visitors can freely avail themselves of our collections of newspaper cuttings and our biographical and bibliographical material. For the purpose of research one can contact the curator of the museum, with whose assistance letters and manuscripts may be consulted.

Frysk Ynternasjonaal Kontakt
Link >>
Frysk Ynternasjonaal Kontakt is a youth association which aims to make Frisian youngsters aware of their own language and culture. International contacts are a prominent means to reach this goal. By meeting other young people who are from small language communities as well, you can discover the surplus value of your own language and culture. Besides, it can be stimulating to know there are more minority communities in Europe.

Fryske Akademy
Link >>
The Fryske Akademy is the most active institution within the Frisian province concerning the knowledge and instruction on the autochthonous language and culture. Apart from hosting the Mercator-Education centre (http://mercator-education.org), the Fryske Akademy is a scientific centre for research and education concerning the Frisian region, and which is divided into three departments: History, Literature and Onomastics, Social Sciences, and Linguistics.

Gabinete de documentaçao e direito comparado
Documentation and Comparative Law Office (Portugal)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Portugal.

Gaelport Comhdháil Náisiúnta na Gaeilge
Link >>
Gaelport is an extremely useful site for all those wishing to be informed about the latest developments of Irish language promotion. An example of this is the updated information on the recently passed Official Languages Act. Users may subscribe to Gaelport’s newsletter in either its only-Irish version or a bilingual Irish/English.

GLOBAL REACH
Global Internet Statistics (by languages)
Link >>
Here are the latest estimated figures of the number of people online in each language zone (native speakers). We classify by languages instead of by countries, since people speaking the same language form their own online community no matter what country they happen to live in.

Groupement pour les Droits des Minorités (GDM)
Minority Rights Group
Link >>
The “Groupement pour les Droits des Minorités” (GDM) is a French association affiliated to the International Minority Rights Group (MRG) of London. The latter is a non-governmental organisation which has a consultative status fot the UN, the EU and the Council of Europe. GDM intends to contribute to the defence of human rights and more specifically to minorities rights of an either national, religious, cultural or linguistic nature. In order to fulfil its objectives, the GDM defines itself as an information resource on the situation of minorities (publications, public events, etc.) as well as it contributes to think on the concepts of minority, identity and their juridical formulations.

Grup Català de Sociolingüística
Catalan Group of Sociolinguistics
Link >>
The Catalan Group of Sociolinguistics is an association which gathers several experts on the field of Catalan sociolinguistics.

Guyane - Laboratoire de Linguistique
Link >>

Határon Túli Magyarok Hivatala honlapján
Government Office for Hungarian Minorities Abroad
Link >>
This is another official webpage of the Hungarian government, in this case of the body in charge of supervising the implementation of the so-called Staus Law. It also provides additional information on governmental programmes in relation to Hungarian-speaking populations outside Hungary, reports on these minorities, etc.

Helünäüdeq võro keelest
An example of võro language in sound
Link >>

HRI - Human Rights Internet
Link >>
HRI is dedicated to the empowerment of human rights activists and organizations, and to the education of governmental and intergovernmental agencies and officials and other actors in the public and private sphere, on human rights issues and the role of civil society. When it was founded in 1976, HRI was known as Internet: the International Human Rights Documentation Network. Thus, the term Internet was used to identify an international network of human rights organizations and documentation, not the sprawling virtual community that everyone has come to know today. This approach is in keeping with HRI's solidarity-building and networking, its human rights education efforts, its massive databases and documentation collections, and its ability to bring together the similar strategies of various, and sometimes remote, human rights organizations.

Human Rigths net
Link >>
Website to support organizations and networks on human rights. You may find in it links to different organizations as well as information on the activities and publications from NGOs specialized in human linguistic rights.

Hungarian Centre for Human Rights
(Hungary)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Hungary.

Hungarian Human Rights Foundation
Link >>
This organization was created years ago by young Hungarian-Americans in order to call the international attention on the situation of Hungarian minorities outside Hungary, specially in Romania. The Foundation serves as a clearinghouse of information for Western governments, human rights organizations, the media and the general public. It regularly provides updated information about the situation of such populations in the countries neighbouring Hungary.

Ilovelanguages.com
The Human Language Page
Link >>
The Human Language Page is a wide catalog of internet sources concerning languages. You may also find a database with nearly 1800 links, including pages on literature, translation services, software, language schools, dictionaries, etc.

INFORMATION CENTRE FOR FINNO-UGRIC PEOPLES
Link >>
As the name of this institution indicates, it provides information on the Finno-Ugric peoples, such as Livonians, Seto, Sami, Erzya and Moksha, and Mari. The site includes: a list of Uralic languages (with number of speakers, location and level of endangerment according to UNESCO), papers on Finno-Ugric peoples and other minority issues, a short reference guide on the endangered Uralic peoples, and other features.

Informe sobre l'aplicació per l'Estat Espanyol de la Carta Europea de les Llengües Regionals o Minoritàries en relació a la llengua catalana (setembre 2003)
Report of the on the implementation by the Spanish State of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages with regard to the Catalan language (September 2003)
Link >>
OBSERVATORY OF THE CATALAN LANGUAGE

INGENTA- Language problems & language planning
Link >>
Ingenta defines itself as the most comprehensive collection of online academic and professional publications available. Ingenta supplies access to John Benjamins Publishing’s materials concerning language problems & language planning.

Institut de la Communication Parlée
Institute of Spoken Communication
Link >>

Institut Grand-Ducal-Section de Linguistique, d´Ethnologie et d´Onomastique
Luxembourg Society for Linguistic, Ethnological and Dialectic Studies
Link >>
The aims of the “Section” are linguistic studies in general and more particularly of the Luxembourg language, ethnological studies on Luxembourg and surroundings, Luxembourg ethymological studies, onomastic studies (family names, place names), setting up of surveys (field research an through mail) and of archives (linguistic, ethnologic and onomastic). Besides, the section is in charge of the publication and update of the Dictionnary of the Luxembourg language, based of the above studies and surveys.

Inštitut za narodnostna vprašanja (INV)
Institute for Ethnic Studies (IES) of Ljubljana
Link >>
The Institute for Ethnic Studies (IES) is a public research institution in the field of ethnic studies, which investigates, in an interdisciplinary way, the following issues: "Slovene ethnic question, the status of Slovene ethnic communities in Italy, Austria and Hungary, the status of Slovenes in the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, the status of Slovene emigrants, of ethnic communities (national minorities and other ethnic groups) in Slovenia, the status of migrants in Slovenia, theory and methodology of the research of ethnic topics, and the forms of ethnic issue (ethnicity, nationalism) in Europe and worldwide". You may also find in this web page information on the International Conference on "Constitutional, Legal and Political Regulation and Management of Ethnic Relations", carried out on December, 2000.

Institutionalizing Ethnicity in the Western Balkans: Managing Change in Deeply Divided Societies
Link >>
(Working Paper no. 19) By Florian Bieber

International Constitutional Law (ICL)
Link >>
The University of Wuerzburg's web page includes the International Constitutional Law (ICL) project, which provides English translations of a great number of constitutions of the world and other textual material related to constitutional documents. You may also find useful references for a quick comparison of such documents with constitutional provisions and links to different constitutional courts from Europe and all over the world.

International Helsinsky Federation for Human Rights
Link >>
The Helsinki International Federation for Human Rights is an autonomous group of non-governmental and non-profit organizations which operate for the promotion of human rights throughout Europe. You may also find in this address a new report on the situation of human rights in several states within the OSCE area ("Human Rights in the OSCE Region: the Balkans, the Caucasus, Europe, Central Asia and North America, Report 2000"). This document may be directly downloaded from this oage by using the Acrobat-reader.

International Human Rights Instruments from The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (ONU)
Link >>
In this site you can find a list of the ONU most important documents for international protection of human rights. Besides, you can also link to the "new instruments under development", where you will find the draft of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, under discussion now at the ONU.

International Institute of Humanitarian Law
(Italy)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Italy.

Irmandades da fala da Galiza e Portugal
Brotherhoods between Galicia and Portugal
Link >>
The Lusophone cultural association Irmandades da Fala da Galiza e Portugal and the Conselho Internacional da Lusofonia, formed by NGOs from both Iberian states, look after the defence and promotion of the Portuguese language in Galicia, Portugal, Brazil, African states having Portuguese as the official language, and Timor. They publish lusophone technical-scientific journals written in Portuguese.

JEMIE
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (ECMI) (Article)
Link >>

KEMO
Minority Groups Research Centre
Link >>
The Minority Groups Research Centre (KEMO) is devoted to the establishment of roads of communication between concerned people from diverse disciplines in order to understand through dialogue and profound thought the minority phenomenon in Greece.

La frontière linguistique de la ligne à l'espace: éléments pour une schématisation
The language border from the line to space: elements for a structured schema
Link >>
Article by Alain Viaut

La Minorización institucional del euskara en Navarra (Kontseilua)
(Article)
Link >>

La Teranyina de les llengües
The languages' cobweb
Link >>
This website has been created to encourage the use of minorized languages within the Internet. You will find links to other sites written in Catalan, Asturian, Basque, Occitan, etc.They want this page to grow day by day; they need, therefore, your help: if you know any page in the web written in any minorized language we would be very grateful if you send them its adresses to galileo@uv.es

La tutela delle lingue minoritarie a 20 anni dalla risoluzione Arfè
Link >>
Proceedings of the seminary, Torino, 20 November 2001

LANGUAGE COMMUNITIES IN THE REGION OF FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA
Link >>
This site can be found in the official website of the Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It provides much information on the legal status of the language minorities present in this territory: the German, Slovene and Friulian ones. In particular, it gives account of the legal framework which regulates their status, with links to the most relevant legal texts, both at state and regional level.

Language Vitality and Endangerment (March 2003)
Link >>
Report by UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages

Languages on the web
Link >>
Webpage which includes more than 30.000 links to organizations, universities, educational centres, translations, literature, and other resources in and about many of the world's languages.

Le portail des langues de France
Portal on the Languages of France
Link >>
In this site, supported by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, you will find a general introduction to the multilingual reality of France and its colonies. It provides a short description on each of the languages focused as well as a list of related links to other sites.

LegacyRus.com
Link >>
Service of compilation of documents concerning Eastern Europe.

LEGAL DEFENCE BUREAU FOR NATIONAL AND ETHNIC MINORITIES (NEKI)
Link >>
NEKI provides legal assistance to members of national and ethnic minorities who live in Hungary, as defined in the act on the rights of national and ethnic minorities, and have suffered differentiated treatment or discrimination due to their national or ethnic origin. It is among NEKI's primary objectives to thoroughly investigate cases of discrimination by carrying out fact-finding missions, with the involvement of independent specialists, where needed.

Legislació lingüística al País Valencià
Linguistic Legislation in the Valencian Country
Link >>
Vast collection of linguistic legislation in the Valencian Autonomous Community, divided by type of legal provision and by topics. It has been developed on the basis of different legislative databases, among which are that of the Valencian Government (CIDJA) and the website of the Department of Culture of the Government of Catalonia. The website is enlarged and updated on a regular basis, although the documentation selected is made according to its relevance and social impact.

Legislació lingüística de la llengua catalana
Linguistic legislation of the Catalan language
Link >>
Department of culture of the Generalitat of Catalonia, section of Catalan language, legislative archives.

LEGISLATIONLINE
Link >>
This a free-of-charge online service provided by the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). It compiles international texts and domestic legislation in the OSCE region (55 countries located in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe and North America). Documents may be accessed through a search engine and by means of different entries (state, topic and general search). Available in several languages.

LENGHE.NET - Il Portâl de lenghe furlane
Portal of the Friulan Language
Link >>
Friulan/Italian bilingual portal which offers general information regarding the Friulan language and culture, including a news service, a links section, and the online edition of INT. Journal –also bilingual–, created by the Istitut Ladin Furlan.

LES LANGUES DE FRANCE
Link >>
The languages of France contribute to the creativity and cultural lightening of this country. Its languages are a common wealth and are part of the human heritage. The languages of France can be understood as regional or minority languages spoken traditionally by the French citizens in the territory of the French Republic, and which are non-official languages. The languages included in this portal are: Alsatian, Arabic, Western Armenian, Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, and the Creole languages spoken in Guadeloupe, Guiana, Martinique or La Reunion, among others.

Les langues en Europe
Languages in Europe
Link >>
European Commission's official website devoted in general to the languages of Europe, mainly the official languages of the European Union, as well as to community programmes and actions dealing with linguistic diversity and language learning.

Les langues régionales, aspects juridiques
Regional languages in France, juridical matters
Link >>
French Department of Culture, section of regional languages.

Ligallo de Fablans de l'Aragonés
Association of Aragonese Speakers
Link >>
Cultural association on the defence of the Aragonese culture, tradition and language. Ever since 1982, the Ligallo de Fablans is working hard for the recognition of the Aragonese language. The main objective of the association is to approach Aragonese to all the society by means of courses, speeches, parties, book and musical edition, etc. aiming at the social and official recognition of the language.

LINGUAPAX
Link >>
This is Linguapax’s website, an organization whose aim is to promote those policies protecting language diversity and fostering the learning of several languages. Linguapax was born as a UNESCO initiative stemming from an experts meeting in Kiev in 1987. You can find information and diverse documents: the papers and lectures of the World Congress on Language Policies, own documents and didactical materials for the promotion and respect of linguistic diversity and the promotion of positive attitudes towards the world’s language diversity.

Linguasphere
Link >>
The objective of this page is to gather information on linguistic tipology, linguistic diversity and classifications of linguistic communities from all over the world. It also contents the linguistic Observatory of the world's languages in French.

Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Europe: a challenge for educational research and practice
Diversitat lingüística i cultural a Europa: un repte per a la recerca i la pràctica en l’educació
Link >>
EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, Vol. 1, N. 1, 2002 Article by Ingrid Gogolin (University of Hamburg, Germany)

Linguistic Tolerance Policies: Can a Viable Model be Constructed for Moldova?
Link >>
Paper for Roundtable Discussion "Educating Tolerance in Multi-cultural Societies", Chisinau, Moldova, October 4-6, 2001 By Harold F. Schiffman (South Asia Studies, University of Pennsylvania)

Linguistica Luxemburgensia
Link >>
Linguistica Luxemburgensia is a site devoted to the scientific study of the Luxembourgish language and to the language situation in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. One may consult existing documents and studies on Luxembourgish and the other languages- French, German, Portuguese- spoken in Luxembourg.

Llengües del món
Languages of the World
Link >>
This website presents (in Catalan) a genetic grouping of all living languages in the world. Those languages that have derived from a common language are grouped in Families, Families in Groups, Groups in Phylums and these in Macro-Phylums. Linguists have not agreed yet on an universal genetic classification of languages. A synthesis (improvable and arguable) of the diverse opinions is provided here.

Lois et règlament codifiés. Ministère de Justice (Canada)
Consolidated Statutes and Regulations. Departament of Justice (Canada)
Link >>
In this web page you can find numerous Canadian legal texts as well as references of state and provincial jurisprudence.

LOWLANDS-L
Link >>
“An e-mail discussion list for people who share an interest in the languages and cultures of the Lowlands”, this website is focused one those Germanic languages that developed in the Lowlands: the low-lying areas adjacent to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These are primarily Dutch, Zeelandic (Zeeuws, West Flemish), Frisian, Limburgish and Low Saxon (Low German). Also included are those languages that descended from autochthonous Lowlands languages and are used elsewhere; for example, Afrikaans, Lowlands-based emigrant languages, pidgins and creoles, and also English and Scots. The resources provided by this website include a zoomable map, an introduction to the language varieties of the Lowlands, language materials, free online dictionaries, and other features.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute für Menschenrechte Wien
Human Rights (Austria)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Austria.

Maastricht Centre for Human Rights
(Netherlands)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in the Netherlands.

Macedonia’s interethnic coalition: The first six months (May 2003)
Link >>
Article by PROJECT ON ETHNIC RELATIONS

MAGAZINE LINGUISTICA OCCITANA
Link >>
Website of the online review Linguistica Occitana, supported by the association with the same name. Surveyed by a reading committee, the available articles deal with all aspects of research about the Occitan linguistics. They are written in Occitan, in another Romance language, or in English, and all of them are summed up in Occitan, Catalan, English and French. In this first issue of the review, you will find the articles and their abstracts, corresponding to some of the papers from the Obradors de Linguistica Occitana, organized in Nîmes in August 2002 and 2003. The second issue, corresponding as well to the Obrador de Linguistica Occitana of 2003, will be published in Autumn 2004, and the the call for papers for the 2005 issues will soon be made.

Marangopoulus Foundation for Human Rights
(Greece)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Greece.

MEMBER STATES’ LEGISLATION – RACE EQUALITY DIRECTIVE: State of Play
Link >>
In this European Commission’s site one can find short reports on the current state of play in each Member State on the implementation of the Race Equality Directive into national law. These reports were prepared in October 2003 by the independent experts group in race and religious discrimination which is funded under the Community Action Programme to combat discrimination. The contents of the published reports do not necessarily reflect the opinion or position of national authorities or of the European Commission.

MIDAS - Minority Dailies Association
Link >>
Newspaper editors representing more then 10 linguistic communities in Europe decided to form an association, that would co-ordinate strategies and increase co-operation in publishing, marketing and obtaining funding. Providing minorities currently without a daily paper with the possibility of collaboration with existing minority papers is also aimed at, as is the use of new media such as the internet (e.g. common homepages, a newspaper archive, links to the various papers and minority organisations), in order to provide quick and global information. In addition, the organisation also foresees common lobbying for minority protection at the Brussels institutions or the use of common advertising campaigns, making a wide advertising platform in other minority areas.

MINELRES
Minority national legislation on the MINELRES web-site
Link >>
MINELRES (directory of resources on minority human rights and related problems of the transition period in Eastern and Central Europe) offers a new section in the site where you can find the most important legal documents on minority issues in Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.

Ministère de l'Education Nationale, de la Formation Professionnelle et des Sports
(Luxembourg)
Link >>
Official website of the Luxembourg Education Ministry in which, besides general data on its activities, the user may also find more specific information on those services with regard to language teaching: primary school integration courses in mother tongue, adult education, teaching of the French language in primary school, etc.

MINOLA
Link >>
“Minority Languages” is a EU-Comenius project where five different schools work together. Students from Spain, Finland, Sweden, Italy and Germany cooperate to find out common points and differences between the situation of minority languages in their respective countries (Catalan in Spain, Swedish in Finland, languages of immigrants in the others), and they learn about Geography and History too.

Minoranze Linguistiche. Provincia di Torino
Linguistic Minorities. Province of Torino
Link >>
This webpage gathers detailed information on the linguistic minorities in the province of Torino, Italy: Occitan and Franco-Provençal. It does not only provide demographic and geographical data about the location of these language communities but also an exhaustive collection of the linguistic legislation on the promotion or protection of minority languages in Italy.

Minoranze Linguistiche: Prospettive per l'operativita' di una legge
Link >>
Proceedings of the international conference, 23-24 March 2002 PROVINCIA DI TORINO – PROGETTO STRATEGICO “MINORANZE LINGUISTICHE”

Minorities in Europe
Link >>
This webpage is a part of the EXPO 2000 project "Cultures, Languages, Minorities". You can information on European minority languages, specially those within the German-Danish border area of Schleswig-Holstein. The information is vailable in English, German and Danish.

Minorities in Greece (The Balkan Human Rights Web Pages)
Link >>
This Balkan Human Rights webpage includes general descriptive reports on cultural and linguistic minority groups in Greece, such as the Arvanites (Albanian-speaking group), Jews, Macedonian, Pomak, Roma, Turks of Western Thrace or Vlachs.

Minorities: Croatia
(Article)
Link >>

Minority-Language Related Broadcasting and Legislation in the OSCE
(Report)
Link >>
By: T. McGonagle, B. Davis Noll & M. Price, Eds., Study commissioned by the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, carried out by the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy (PCMLP), Oxford University and the Institute for Information Law (IViR) of the University of Amsterdam, April 2003 (published: September 2003).

MOVEMENT OF DEFENCE OF THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE (GALICIA)
Link >>
The Movement of Defence of the Language (Movimento de Defesa da Lingua), born in 1995, works for the naturalisation of the language proper to Galicia, internally known as Galician and internationally as Portuguese, and for the reintegration of Galician in the linguistic system to which it belongs, i.e. the Lusophony, in order to the reverse the process of language shift from Galician/Portuguese to Spanish.

MULTILINGUAL SEARCH CATALOGUE
Link >>
Multilingual Search Catalogue is a catalogue of resources, which is edited by volunteer editors. A multilingual Catalogue, which encompasses all of the language resources of the Internet, though we do not offer translation services. We are here to enable you to access Internet resources in your preferred languages. The Net continues to grow and expand, it embraces all languages and each day welcomes new browsers. The Internet is no longer high-tech; it has become simply a medium of human intercommunication. This project aims to help browsers find their required information, as well as enable them to help each other as they explore the Internet.

'Nation State' or 'State Nation'?: Conceptual Reflections and Some Spanish, Belgian and Indian Data
Link >>
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Article by Juan J. Linz, Alfred Stepan and Yogendra Yadav

Nemzeti és Etnikai Kisebbségi Hivatalnál
Office for National and Ethnic Minorities in Hungary
Link >>
Official webpage of the Hungarian government's public office responsible for those policies related to national and ethnic minorities in Hungary. Given the information it provides -reports on the present situation of minoroties, legislation in force, stadistical data, etc.- we think it is worth visiting in order to know more about this issue.

Non-citizens in Estonia
Link >>
Article by Vadim Poleshchuk

Nordfriisk Instituut
Link >>
The Nordfriisk Instituut is the central scientific institution in North Frisia for the preservation and promotion on the Frisian language, culture and history. It is the central meeting point for all those who are interested in North Frisian topics. The institute is scientifically active specifically in the fields of language, history and national geography. It is available to anybody being somehow engaged or interested in North Frisia. It wants to work scientifically on the one side and to support, promote and activate cultural activities of the local people on the other side.

Norsk senter for menneskerettigheter (SMR)
Norwegian Institute of Human Rights (Norway)
Link >>
Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Norway.

O Portal Galego da Lingua
Galicia Portal on Language
Link >>
The purpose of this portal of the Associaçom Galega da Língua (AGAL) is to become an open and participative space, reinforce the full normalization of the Galician-Portuguese language in Galicia as well as its re-integration in its historical linguistic domain (the so-called Lusophonia), including states where it is the official language: Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, etc.

Obra Cultural Balear
Link >>
Obra Cultural Balear is one of the most active Balearic organizations working in favour of the social, cultural, linguistic and national claims in the islands. The website provides information on the several campaigning tasks aimed to strengthen the social and institutional use of the Catalan language, as well as an updated news service on language and cultural issues, an agenda of activities, etc.

Observaciones sobre la aplicación en España de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales o Minoritarias (maig 2003)
Observations on the application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Spain (May 2003)
Link >>
BASQUE GOVERNMENT (in French)

Observaciones sobre la aplicación en España de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales o Minoritarias (maig 2003)
Observations on the application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Spain (May 2003)
Link >>
BASQUE GOVERNMENT (in Basque)

Observaciones sobre la aplicación en España de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales o Minoritarias (maig 2003)
Observations on the application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Spain (May 2003)
Link >>
BASQUE GOVERNMENT (in Spanish)

Observaciones sobre la aplicación en España de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales o Minoritarias (maig 2003)
Observations on the application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Spain (May 2003)
Link >>
BASQUE GOVERNMENT (in English)

Observatori de la Llengua Catalana
Observatory of the Catalan Language
Link >>
The Observatory of the Catalan Language is due to an initiative from a series of civil and cultural organisations to create an independent body which counts on academic expertise and a wide consensus within the Catalan society. It aims to follow up and assess the situation of the Catalan language, as regards both its social use and its legal framework.

OKTAVUOHTA
Digital Magazine on Sámi culture
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Opinion On Serbia and Montenegro (March 2004)
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Article by Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Council of Europe)

ORBIS LATINUS
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Website devoted to the history, evolution, spread and influences of the Latin language. The purpose of this site is to build up an integral, on-line accessible, and simply browsable, grammar of the Romance languages, which will give the users the possibility to make easy references and comparisons. It also contains articles of more specific linguistic information, concerning the language development, the dialects, the literary tradition etc. These articles may be written in French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish or some other Romance language. A number of hyperlinks will permit the users to discover, compare and explore the similarities and differences between the Romance languages.

Organització pel Multilingüisme
Organization for Multilingualism
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This organization is currently devoted to campaigning in favour of the issue in all the official languages of the new euro coins as well as post stamps of the Spanish state. You will find more detailed information in the dossier of the present number of the Bulletin.

OSCE Developments and Linguistic Minorities
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Article by Sally Holt i John Packer

OSCE-High Commissioner on National Minorities- Documents
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This OSCE website covers the activities from the High Commissioner of National Minorities including articles about its work, an extensive compilation of publications on and by the High Commissioner, an overview of its mandate and activities, letters and statements containing the High Commissioner's recommendations, reports prepared by the High Commissioner's office, speeches by the High Commissioner from 1992 till now, etc.

Papers of the conference to mark the 5th anniversary of the entry into force of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 30-31 October 2003
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By the COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Parlament Europeu: Carta dels Drets Fonamentals de la Unió Europea
European Parlimanet: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
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This webpage contains information and documents on the writing process of the European Charter for Fundamental Rights. You can also find the latest version of this document, approved on the 2nd October, 2000.

Personal page - Pàgina personal
France Minority Language
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PLATTWEB
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Plattweb, which was set up in 1999, is a non-commercial and personal site whose main ambition is to spread information about the “Platt”, the name under which the language spoken in the north eastern part of the French Lorraine is locally known. Users may find in it links to other sites related to the Lëtzebuergesch (or Frankish-Mosellan) language continuum, apart from information on the claims for a major respect towards such linguistic variety in France.

PONTE NAS ONDAS
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A group of professors from Galiza and the North of Portugal have been carrying out from 1995 an educational experience between some schools and institutes. He experience is called ‘Ponte nas ondas!’ [get on air]. It consists of a one-day radio experience elaborated completely by the pupils of the participating schools. The broadcasting is elaborated during the academic year with the exchange of work of all schools and institutes which take part in the experience, and also with the participation of people related to the field of culture (writers, artists, singers, etc).

POUR QUE VIVENT NOS LANGUES
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«Pour que Vivent nos Langues» association was set up on May 2000 in Paris by representatives of several movements, associations, parties or personalities concerned with the defence of cultural rights according to the current conception of human rights, who claim for the recognition and promotion of the different languages and cultures in France, defend the world’s linguistic and cultural diversity and reject all kinds of xenophobia. The goals of the association are the amendment of the French constitution in order that it recognises social and territorial linguistic pluralism, the full ratification by France of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, adopted in 1992 by the Council of Europe, etc.

Programmes and strategic initiatives managed by DG Education and Culture: "Promoting and safeguarding regional and minority languages and cultures"
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This is the link to the DG Education and Culture 's page on minority and regional languages. From it, you can access to the two projects on minority languages co-financed by the EU. Mercator network (http://www.mercator-central.org) and the European Bureau for lesser used languages (http://www.eblul.org). Also, you can find the list of projects financed by the European Commission (DGEC) aimed to safeguard and promote the regional and minority languages of Europe.

Protection of National Minorities through Bilateral Agreements in South-Eastern Europe
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EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF BOLZANO/BOZEN Draft report by Emma Lantschner and Roberta Medda, under the supervision of Prof. Joseph Marko for the 8th Meeting of Government Offices for National Minorities, Strasbourg, 21-22 May 2001.

Protocol n. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Rome: 4.xi.2000
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PROVINCIA DI TORINO- CULTURA-Progetto strategico Minoranze Linguistiche
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The Province of Torino has carried out a study project on historic linguistic minorities following a state law supporting cultural initiatives by municipalities, mountain municipalities and associations participating in the project with bodies, foundations and cultural institutions. The website includes references to the main international, European, Italian and provincial legislative texts.

Provinsje Fryslân
Provincial Administration of Frisia
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On this website you can find general information about Fryslân (Friesland). You also can find particular information about the Provincial Administration. The great part of documents and information is in Dutch and Frisian.

Rannsachadh Air Poileasaidh Cànain Agus Dealbhadh Cànain
Research on language Policy and language Planning
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This website hosted by the University of Edinburgh’s Department of Celtic languages includes a list of online bibliographical references, texts, articles and reports dealing with celtic languages’ policy and planning issues.

Rechtsinformationssystem, Bundeskanzleramt der Republik Österreich
Legal information about Austria
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In this page you shall find information on the legal system prevailing in Austria, as well as links towards the main government bodies, the Parliament, the Law Courts, and the legal database of this European state.

Recognition of Minorities in Europe: Protecting Rights and Dignity
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Article by Panayote Elias Dimitras

Recommendation 1201 (1993) on an additional protocol on the rights of national minorities to the European Convention On Human Rights
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Republic of Ireland - Official Languages Act 2003 (general information)
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The Website of the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs contains a section specifically devoted to the provision of general information (process, features, objectives pursued, frequently asked questions, etc.) about the recent Official Languages Act included in the present Mercator-Bulletin.

RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE LANGUAGES OF FINLAND
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The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland studies and serves to maintain Finnish, Swedish, Saami, Finnish sign language and Romani, and also studies the cognate languages of Finland. Most of the results of the research are published as dictionaries. The Language Planning Department offers telephone guidance and organises different courses in language upkeep for the general public. The library and the archives are also accessible to everybody.

Revista de llengua i dret
Journal on Language and Law
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The Journal on Language and Law, published every six months ever since 1983, which contains articles of study and information on administrative and juridical language, the juridical system of language use and language planning, has now its electronic version. This web-page contains the summaries of its 31 issues as well as abstracts in English.

Riiklik programm' "Lõunaeesti keel ja kultuur"
State program "South Estonian Language and Culture"
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Russians in Estonia, their identity and ethnic conflict
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Legal Information Centre for Human Rights (LICHR), 2003 Article by Vadim Poleshchuk

RUSYN INTERNATIONAL MEDIA CENTRE
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The Rusyn International Media Center (RIMC) was developed to serve as a clearinghouse for Rusyn-related news items, articles, and other current affairs information available on the World Wide Web. It contains a news service that gathers all on-line media reports and news articles about Rusyns or developments in the Rusyn homeland. The Rusyn International Media Center is an independently-produced service and is not affiliated with any organization.

Scots Language Resource Centre
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SCOTTISH CENTRE FOR INFORMATION ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH
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The Scottish Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (Scottish CILT) was set up in 1991 to provide information about languages for students and teachers, opinion formers and policy makers; to promote the learning and use of all languages of relevance to Scotland; and to conduct research in support of the work of language teachers and other language professionals. Scottish CILT receives an annual grant from the Scottish Executive Education Department to fund its core activities.

Seminario de sociolingüística - Universidade de Vigo
Sociolinguistics Seminar - University of Vigo
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The Sociolinguistics, Bilingualism and Language Contact Seminar (SSL) was created in order to promote the research in the enormous field of language and society. The members of the SSL are researchers and teachers in the fields of Galician and Linguistics in the University of Vigo. Users can access the online journal Estudios de Sociolingüística. Linguas, sociedades e culturas (EdS) which has two issues a year. EdS addresses to a national and international specialized reading public, and adopts a wide conception towards the limits of this discipline. This journal assumes as of its own the interdisciplinary character of sociolinguistics.

SKKEAB-STROLLAD KERENT KELENNERIEN EVIT AR BREZHONEG / COLLECTIF PARENTS ENSEIGNANTS POUR LE BRETON
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This is a website created and managed by a group of parents of Breton-speaking pupils, who are campaigning against the measures aiming to decrease the number of school hours in Breton in a number of educational centres in Brittany. Apart from providing information on their claims, visitors can also sign a public petition in this regard.

Sprachpolitik
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In this website you will find information and documents on linguistic policy in France. This does not mean that they should all be complete as it only intends to be a handbook on the complex world of language politics.

Support for Minority Languages in Europe (SMILE project final report)
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The report was commissioned by the Language Policy Unit of the Directorate General for Education and Culture (European Commission), and undertaken in collaboration by the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages (EBLUL) and the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI). It is available in its original English version. This study provides a thoroughgoing analysis of the issues surrounding the protection and promotion of regional and minority languages in the European Union context.

Tartu Ülikooli Lõuna-Eesti keele- ja kultuuriuuringute keskus
The Centre for South Estonian Language and Cultural Studies
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Terres de Guyane
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The Alphabets of Europe
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“The Alphabets of Europe” provides a source of linguistic data for the autochthonous languages of Europe. The main function of these pages is to present a catalogue of European alphabets. The characters which are, and in some cases were, used to write each of the languages of Europe (as far as it has been possible to find information on them), are included here. Some of Europe’s languages (particularly in the Caucasus) have no tradition of writing, though other information on such languages is provided here when it is available. Likewise, some languages have used, or continue to use, one or more than one writing system, which may also be reflected here.

The Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism
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The Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism (ASEN) is based at the London School of Economics and Political Science. ASEN is composed of academics, researchers, students, journalists and others directly concerned with advancing the study of ethnicity and nationalism. ASEN also publishes a bi-annual Bulletin and the journal Nations and Nationalism (four times a year), as well as organizes seminars and conferences.

THE BALTIC CULTURE CENTRE
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The Baltic Culture Centre is a non-profit organization with mission to organize and coordinate international cultural events of Latvia, Baltic, EU and other countries. By exploring the diverse cultural heritage of these countries, all parties would mutually benefit from the acquired experience.

THE CEDIME-SE GUIDE TO THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES (FCNM)
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A new guide to the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities has been posted on the website of the South-eastern Europe division of the Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe (CEDIME-SE). The guide is an extensive database including country reports and implementation histories for Council of Europe members.

The Danish Institute for Human Rights
(Denmark)
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Institution devoted to undertake activities related with human rights in Denmark.

The forgotten issue? Eastward enlargement and national minorities
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Article by Ruth Ferrero

The Foundation for Endangered Languages. University of Bristol
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The Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project
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HRELP has been set up with a donation to document as many endangered languages as possible. Based at SOAS, an international centre for the study of language and cultures, HRELP consists of three programmes: The Documentation Programme, the Academic Programme and the Archiving Programme.

THE INSTITUTE OF THE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE
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The Institute of the Lithuanian Language is an independent research institution into the Lithuanian language. Its main activities are the following: lexicology, lexicography, and research into the grammatical structure of the Lithuanian language; research into the history and dialects of the Lithuanian language, and sociolinguistic research; research into the operation of the Lithuanian language in society, and into terminology; and research into Lithuanian onomastics. This website includes a description of the Lithuanian language, as well as bibliography of books and the centre’s regular publications.

The International Clearing House for Endangered Languages
Endangered languages in South America
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This new webpage of the International Clearing House for Endangered languages is devoted since last July to providing information on an important number of the languages spoken in South America. The directory in alphabetical order provides data on each language's variants, their geographical location, the present state of the language, etc.

The International Clearing House for Endangered Languages -
Endangered Languages and Unesco Red Book
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The Macedonian minority in Greece
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Article by MACEDONIAN HUMAN RIGHTS MOVEMENT OF CANADA

The Newspapers in the Languages of National Minorities and Ethnic Groups - Yugoslavia
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In this government’s other official website you may find some information about those Yugoslav newspapers using languages other than Serbian, that is Albanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Rumanian, Ruthenian, Turkish, Bulgarian and Romani.

The right to education and minority language
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EUMAP Project, 2004 By Fernand de Varennes

The Right to Equality and Non-Discrimination With Regard to Language
(Article)
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The Rights of the Members of the National Minorities in Yugoslavia
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Official website of the FRY government containing overall information on ethnic communites living in Yugoslavia, their legal status and rights according to the modern constitution plus some sociolinguistic background data concerning such communities (media, schools, etc.)

The Swedish Institute of International Affairs - “Minorities in Turkey”
(published by The Swedish Intitute of International Affairs)
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Interesting report on the historical and current situation of the religious, ethnic and linguistic minorities in Turkey as well as an overview on the role of the official policies lately implemented in this respect.

TILG - Tesouro Informatizado da Lingua Galega
CTGL - Computerised Treasure of the Galician Language
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The Institute of Galician Language has uploaded the “Computerised Treasure of the Galician Language”. It is a database made up of more than 11.000 entries plus some 90 thousand topics, all of them gathered from Galician texts from 1612 until the present times. The project, which was developed at the Institute of the Galician Language, was conceived as a corpus of modern Galician aiming to subsequently create a dictionary.

Towards Linguistic Diversity Management in the Baltic States.
(Report)
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By: Poleshchuk, Vadim. ECMI report #49. August 2003, 25 pp., appendix.

Transnational Radical Party
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UK Census Statistics
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Official and recent data from the results of the last population census in the UK (2001). Among the information available one can also consult the data relative to the linguistic vitality of the languages other than English that are spoken within the state: Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, etc.

Uma Leht
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A magazine in Võro.

Unesco Most Clearing House - Linguistic Rights
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The analysis of multicultural societies is one of the major research topics of UNESCO's MOST (Management of Social Transformations) Programme. Through interdisciplinary, comparative, and culturally sensitive research, the MOST Programme aims at furnishing information useful for the peaceful and democratic management of societies characterized by cultural and ethnic pluralism. In particular, this research should help design policies that contribute to the goals of achieving equality of citizenship rights between culturally diverse groups and the avoidance and solution of ethnic conflict. The MOST Programme is designed to provide tools for legislators, decision-makers, researchers and other representatives of both governmental and non-governmental organizations to monitor the transition to democracy in multicultural and multi-ethnic societies. This site provides several full-text international legal documents concerning the rights of linguistic minorities, excerpts of 86 national constitutions which contain provisions on language, and a modest bibliography on linguistic rights in international human rights law.

UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe
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Université Laval - L'Amenágement Linguistique dans le Monde
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University of Oregon - (Yamada Language Center) Language Guides by Geographic Location
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This website provides the possibility to access general information on language resources in the internet concerning many languages spoken in the world today, previously subdivided in geographical areas.

Valencianisme.com
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Besides the provision of discussion materals, intervews, links and other resources, “Valencianism of construction”’s website defines itself as a “discourse where identitary and symbolic conflicts become solved. We therefore do not refrain ourselves from conceiving the Valencian country as our nation or displaying our flag and historic emblems, clearly recognizing the unity of our language and proudly using our most deeply rooted varieties.

Venice Commission
European Commission for Democracy through Law
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The work of the European Commission for Democracy through Law is geared to the three underlying principles of Europe's constitutional heritage: democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the basis of all the Council of Europe's activities. The Commission is active throughout the constitutional domain. In this web-site you can find the database CODICES, like the Bulletin on Constitutional Case-Law, is a publication of this European Commission. It reports regularly on the case-law of constitutional courts, courts of equivalent jurisdiction in Europe and America and of the European Court of Human Rights as well as the Court of Justice of the European Communities. The CODICES is published three times a year, each issue reporting the most important case-law since 1993 together with that covering the most recent four months period.

Virtual Finland
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In this page you shall find general information about Finland, its linguistic minorities, and the governmental measures addressed to their protection.

Võro Instituut
Võro Institute
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Võro Keele ja Kultuuri Fond
Foundation of Võro Language and Culture
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Võro maakund
Võro county
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WEB RESOURCES FOR AFRICAN LANGUAGES
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The large majority of the African languages are poorly documented and described. Although much field work is being carried out by a number of Africanists, access to descriptive materials is still very fragmentary and hard to come by. The main aim of this site is to provide easy access to online materials (descriptive as well as theoretic) on African languages. The site contains mainly links to other sites hosting free accessible materials, either as online databases or as downloadable files of various types.

WORLD ACADEMY OF RUSYN CULTURE
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The World Academy of Rusyn Culture is a charitable and academic institution established by Steven Chepa in 2002 for the purpose of encouraging new work and preserving the insights and beauty of Rusyn culture for the benefit of all mankind.

Writing in an unwritten language: the case of Guernsey French
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Article by Julia Sallabank (School of Linguistics & Applied Language Studies, The University of Reading)

Xunta pola Defensa de la Llingua Asturiana
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